“If human beings have a destiny, it is rather to escape the face, to dismantle the face and facializations, to become imperceptible, to become clandestine, not by returning to animality, nor even by returning to the head, but by quite spiritual and special becomings-animal, by strange true becomings.” – Deleuze & Guattari¹
The face may represent a symbol of code, a stratum crafted by our culture, which we often have to fit into. We must rebel and cut these habits. To D & G, “dismantling the face is the same as breaking through the wall of the signifier and getting out of the black hole of subjectivity.”²
Frances Barbe emphasizes the importance of the face in butoh: “The use of the face often reveals self-consciousness and tests if dancers can really commit to something fully, such as a big smile, or a distorted face and, crucially, to keep it alive when asked to maintain it for an extended period.”³
The face and hands talk. To know what is happening with the face/eyes (like the hands) is vital, as they are language-makers, and we do not want to say something during performance not intended.
An example of a completely deterritorialized face would be one that is obscured, dysfunctional, or dead. What is the look of the face planted on the floor? A bit stiff and flat? This is Tatsumi Hijikata’s floor face from his butoh score (butoh-fu) Quiet House.4
In butoh, the face takes the place of the mask. In butoh, the face is de/reterritorialized into a living mask.
Exercise 1: Face Koan
What was your face before you were born?
Exercise 2: Finger Face Mirroring
This exercise was noted by Maurreen Momo Freehill and involves the face mirroring the shape and qualia of fingers in front of it.
Exercise 3: Sour Face, Balloon Face
This is an expansion and contraction exercise. Contract your entire face as if you have something very sour in your mouth. Then from there transition to your face blowing up like a balloon. Repeat.
Exercise 4: Face Sun Massage
This is a nurture exercise. With closed eyes, rotate your head around so that it feels like the sun is massaging all parts of your face. Also, roll your eyes around so that the sun massages all parts of the eye.
Exercise 5: Cobody to Face Mirroring
This is a deterritorialized face exercise where a group gets in a circle and collectively make one co-face, each person a part of the face such as eyes, lips, cheeks, etc. For purposes of visibility, they might all be in a ball and close together. One participant will mirror in the face what the group’s face is showing. The exercise can also be reversed where the co-face is mirroring the one individual’s face.
“What is a tic?” asks D & G. “It is precisely the continually refought battle between a faciality trait that tries to escape the sovereign organization of the face and the face itself, which clamps back down on the trait, takes hold of it again, blocks its line of flight, and reimposes its organization upon it.”²
Become friends with the facial tic, a form of facial shock, an isolated shock. Shock is one of the Four Butoh Spices: (1) Shock; (2) Sway; (3) Collapse; (4) Die.
The face is closely associated to emotion. It is recommended to identify emotions past the basic happy, sad, and angry. There are many more:
Affection, anger, angst, anguish, annoyance, anticipation, anxiety, apathy, arousal, awe, boredom, confidence, contempt, contentment, courage, curiosity, depression, desire, despair, disappointment, disgust, distrust, ecstasy, embarrassment, empathy, envy, euphoria, fear, frustration, gratitude, grief, guilt, happiness, hatred, hope, horror, hostility, humiliation, interest, jealousy, joy, loneliness, love, lust, outrage, panic, passion, pity, pleasure, pride, rage, regret, remorse, resentment, sadness, saudade, schadenfreude, self-confidence, shame, shock, shyness, sorrow, suffering, surprise, trust, wonder, worry.
Important: To not get lost in the outer form, once a particular feeling is recognized, swallow the emotion and then resonate with how the body reacts while also being mindful of typical facial expression associated with the feeling. This is not repression of emotion, but the opposite. If after this, the facial expression or gesture still comes, resonate with that too.
Exercise 1: Deconstructing Emotional Response
Because there are certain facial expressions related to a feeling, we want to train ourselves to go beyond this. The physicality of an emotion may seem universal, but there can still be a cultural influence. For instance, if one were to give a teeth-displaying smile to a monkey, this could be taken as a sign of aggression because to them teeth means being ready to bite, hence an act of aggression. We can thus shift the physical response to any emotion. If for instance, we go into the qualia of horror, we can utilize a facial expression not associated with the qualia of horror.
Exercise 2: Emotional Face Chimera
This is a chimera exercise where one part of the face gives one emotion and another part another. For instance, the mouth can exhibit deep disappointment and the eyes, euphoria.
What is in an emotional expression? The typical facial expression can be seen in everyday life or in movies. Mainstream actors know these facial expressions. In butoh, however, we may not be too interested in the surface meaning of things or general associations. This is why I like to use the analogy of: (1) Juice; (2) Wine; (3) Brandy.
Let juice be the ordinary facial expression, e.g. fear. We then take this emotional expression and swallow it so that it can ferment. The question is, what will turn this juice expression to a wine expression? Is there something even more that can show us fear without the literal facial expression? Perhaps this is your secret. Is it new wine or aged wine? Can we take the process further into distillation? Can we make brandy? If so, will the brandy be a new brandy or an aged brandy?
When the face is deterritorialized, it leaves the usual function of the human and moves somewhere else in the body (gets reterritorialized somewhere else). What if the torso becomes a face? Can you make a face with the torso? What if the hand becomes a face? What kind of facial expressions can your hand make?
“It is possible to make a superb dance with the eyes alone.” – Tatsumi Hijikata
People often say that the eyes are the windows to the soul for a reason. The eyes are one of the main filters of our experience.
Just like any position in butoh, if we are to do them, they are not to be forced just for aesthetic or anti-aesthetic (grotesque) purpose, but because it’s a natural manifestation out of what is already happening inside.
Human World Eyes
Watching Eye – This is the typical, everyday social or behavioral stratum of which is a starting place for deterritorialization or reduction & regeneration.
Emotional Eye – The eyes (with the assistance of the eyelids and eyebrows) can embody all the emotions. The main emotions are happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise and disgust.
Closed Eye – It is easier to go inside the body with eyes closed. Only one eye can also be closed.
The rest of the eyes on the list are deviations/deterritorializations/reductions & regenerations.
Glass Ball Eye – Like a doll’s eye, these eyes are immobile. Place your gaze near the horizon. Or you can form a parallel line from eye level to ground without placing attention to any particular area, but all the area in your field. At the same time, do not build an interest in the field. Eyelids are relaxed. Pupils do not move. Try not to blink too much, and if you do, let it be a subtle flash. Third eye can be focused on instead.
Joan Laage says of this eye: “[its] diffused or non-seeing focus allows the head and, in particular the face, which in the West is so communicative, to be equal to the rest of the body.”5 Deleuze and Gutarri even mention this eye: “I see that behind the sockets of the eyes there is a region unexplored, the world of futurity, and here there is no logic whatsoever. […] The gaze is but secondary in relation to the gazeless eyes.”¹
Another reason this eye might have been so prevalent in butoh is for its symbolic nature of going beyond the visual channel and to travel freely to the others (e.g. audio, emotional, human relationship). To Yoko Ishikawa, this is internalizing. She noted that one must get beyond the stumbling block of mere conscious visualization.14
White Eye – Relax the eyelids and look up at your third eye. The goal is to appear with only white eyes.
Half Crossed Eye – Do the Crossed Eye (See Above), but then straighten out one eye. This may take a bit of practice but it is doable.
Rotten Eye – The eyes are dysfunctional and moving in random directions as if it were taken over by bugs. This is a very good example of a nearly completely reduced or deterritorialized eye.
Rock Cicada Eye – This is a frozen, solid glare that for some may even be terrifying, bringing back the archetype perhaps of the big eye in the sky that judges you or sees your every move.
Thunder Eye – Look side to side then pick up the speed till you reach a vibration/tremble effect with the eyes.
Doll Eye – Eyes that go from either completely open or completely shut.
50/50 Eye – Close your eyes half way so that you see half dark and half light. Be 50% inside and 50% outside.
The focal spot ranges from way far in the horizon to our own body. The eyes can also be useful with on-the-spot qualias if we resonate with objects or persons that we see literally.
Edge Eye – These are various watches from the corner or side of the eye.
Traveling Eye – Any of the deterritorialized eyes above can result in traveling eyes. Yoko Ashikawa proposed eyes to travel beyond the front of our skull, but to the “crotch, back, and so on,” and further still beyond the body.6
The natural result is transformation, becoming or embodying various qualias. This is because eyes are associated with personality. So the eyes in/on/of something is a becoming of something. So say one’s eyes float out to a tree and now the tree has eyes. We will have automatically been engaging in becoming the tree and making it a person.
Exercise 1: Figure 8 Conditioning
This is a figure 8 exercise. With your eyes open, do the figure 8 in varying ways, so that the 8 is upright or horizontal, but also make the 8 go behind you so that your pupils may seem to go behind your head. Also try the figure 8s with closed eyelids.
Exercise 2: Quick Counting
Find something such as bricks which you can count with your eyes very quickly. The objective of this exercise is to go from one item to the other as fast as you can.
The following is Tatsumi Hijikata’s butoh-fu that makes mention of the eye, and the very last butoh-fu is Kazuo Ohno’s. The majority of the list comes from Waguri translations, unless otherwise footnoted:7 (1) Wild Flower; (2) The Blind Girl; (3) Flowers and Children; (4) Prince of Smoke; (5) Stuffed Birds; (6) Evaporation Process; (7) World of Toyen; (8) Walking Just As Pure Measurement; (9) Deer; (10) Horse; (11) Owl; (12) Bird Dances; (13) Strange Man With Frog On His Head; (14) A Strange Neurotic; (15) “Kinka-To” Walk; (16) From The Forest To The Swamp; (17) The Appearance Of The God Maya Made Of Nerves; (18) The Bird’s Nest Walk; (19) See Through The Crystal; (20) Traces of Salvador Dali; (21) Behind The Mask; (22) Leper Hospital; (23) Heavy Neck; (24) Auschwitz Walk; (25) Ear Walk; (26) Rubber; (27) Pus and Flower of Epilepsy; (28) Celebration Within The Wall; (29) “Dozo,” A Storage Building Made of Dried Mud; (30) Flowers In The Wall; (31) Quiet House8 (32) Sick Dancing Princess (Ch. 1)9 (33) Bugs Crawl10 (34) Walking of Measure10 (35) Beardsley No. 1 Thru 410 (36) The Flower Garden of Bresdin10 (37) Flamen11 (38) Gibasan12 (39) Monet13
Exercise 1: Tongue Rolls
Roll the tongue in endless ways, inside and outside the lips.
Exercise 2: Dog Tongue
Let the tongue dangle out long like that of a dog. From here you can move the head so that the tongue dangles.
Exercise 3: Figure 8
Figure 8s from multiple directions.
Exercise 4: Tongue Lunch
Your tongue has become food.
Exercise 5: Deterritorialized Tongue
In the place of the tongue, something else takes its place. Is someone’s arm your tongue? Is a bird your tongue?