Our petrified idea of the theatre is connected with our petrified idea of a culture without shadows, where, no matter which way it turns, our mind (esprit) encounters only emptiness, though space is full. But the true theatre, because it moves and makes use of living instruments, continues to stir up shadows where life has never ceased to grope its way. – Antonin Artaud¹
Hidden edges or repressions are like a field of treasure for personal and deep artistry. Follow these steps to take the warrior’s journey into your own psyche, a journey of sacrifice. Peter Brook notes, “The act of performance is an act of sacrifice, of sacrificing what most men prefer to hide – this sacrifice is his gift to the spectator.”7
Shadow work takes on the journey of Jo-Ha-Kyu or Jo-Ha-Kyu-Jo, which are the main parts of a story: (1) Thesis (problem or lead); (2) Antithesis (working with the problem or alchemical process); (3) Synthesis (solution or gold). These stages are to be journeyed with movement or dance. To Rhizome Lee it is finding the twist (Jo), entering the twist (Ha) to climax (Kyu), and concluding with the reverse twist (Kyu/Kyu to new Jo). Sondra Fraleigh, who makes heavy use of alchemy in relation to butoh noted, “Butoh alchemy prepares me for uneven footing.”5 Let the journey begin.
According to Rhizome Lee, Hijikata’s Flower of Kan represents moments of resonating with that which one cannot resonate with. Kan is the edge or difficulty and flower is the synthesis, resonance/transcendence/transformation of the difficulty. Rhizome Lee looked over Hijikata’s entire butoh-fu and located select kan qualia he felt were severe.8
Before embarking, you must be in a comfortable space. You must also have nurtured yourself well already.
1. Search for the shadow. (Jo)
You can also ask yoursealf a big question such as, “What is the underlying problem right now?, “How am I really doing?” or “What do I really need right now?” Once you get a feeling or answer back, go on to step 2.
2. Feel the shadow. (Jo)
Observe the feeling/demon/poison in a third person perspective. There are many ways we can feel (see section on feeling). Identifying an unsure feeling is a good start. Gradually solve the riddle from there. There might be more than one feeling/demon/poison, but just pick one. Simply see the feeling/demon/poison externally from a distance and without passing judgement. If you want suggestions on creating distance, refer to section on boundaries. Feel, but also embrace the warrior, and do not take the feeling personally.
3. Become the shadow. (Ha to Kyu)
While keeping your inner warrior, compassionately ask the feeling/demon/shadow what the possible solution, negotiation, or request might be and wait for the response. Feel the response. Place yourself inside the feeling/demon/poison knowing that this state is only transitory. Feel any slight release/limit/climax (kyu). Give thanks to the feeling/demon/poison.
4. Transcend the shadow. (Kyu/Kyu to New Jo)
Return to your prior position, seeing the feeling/demon/poison under a new lens, and transformed into an ally or medicine. You become a stronger or more complete you with the help of this ally or medicine. If you have reached this step through a major shadow, you ought to reward yourself in some way when your research is complete for the day.
Note: If the edge is too strong, you don’t need to force yourself to go forward. As Rhizome Lee has said before in class: you can put it back in your pocket, and believe me, it will be waiting there for you if you so wish to venture there again.
Exercise: I Accept Myself Despite…
Complete the prompt with movement. Resonate.
- Sen means “fresh,” “novel,” “new,” and/or “interesting.” Feel any strange or new subtle tendencies by moving in any various unique/twisted way. This is form to essence, or form provoking essence.
- Shin means “deep.” Simply feel any new feelings that are connected to our depths or deep childhood memories, and may often be an or edge, trigger, or kan.
- Hitsu means “necessary.” Go into any of the depths, but only to what seems necessary. If we go in too quick, we may do ourselves a disservice. To Antonin Artaud, this is the essential theatre:
The essential theatre is like the plague, not because it is contagious but because, like the plague, it is the revelation, the foregrounding, the exteriorization of a latent depth of cruelty that enables all of the perverse possibilities of the spirit to manifest themselves in an individual or a people.9
For more on edge approach, see the psychodrama/ritual Paper Edge.
Length of Time
Shadows come in varying intensities. Some shadows may be identified within 5 minutes but others may take years. Recent shadows are easier to find than not so recent ones. Because of this, not so recent shadow research may be taken outside of the realm of the studio or exploration space, but with precaution.
A trigger is a physiopsychological response to an associated sharp shadow or trauma provoked by something in the environment experienced by one or more of the senses.² One may also feel that their body has betrayed them because the mind might think the situation is small, but the automatic body response paints a different picture. Example trigger feelings: (1) overwhelming feeling; (2) numbness; (3) spaced out; (4) asphyxiating; (5) a bomb explosion.³ Very often when these triggers are met, the only thing one wishes to do is to flee from them in some form via distractions or indulgences (food, substances, habits). Fortunately, we can use another response which is butoh theater.
If a trigger happens, it is highly encouraged to attempt to engage, deconstruct, and resonate with it as much as possible. If a trigger happens during practice, it is an opportunity to engage in shadow work. Step 1 (Jo) of the 4 steps of shadow work (see above) already engaged itself, and so you can direct yourself to the preliminary step (comfortable space, nurture) followed by step 2 and attempt to complete the process. If the work is too difficult, do not shame or guilt yourself, but instead accept your place in the self-work.
Shadow & Scapegoat
“Be not hasty to condemn others; how knowest thou that in their place, thou couldest have resisted the temptation? And even were it so, why shouldst thou despise one who is weaker than thyself?” – Liber Librae, V.I. The Equinox4
There are two ways of associating with the shadow, as a scapegoat (something to blame), or as an empowerer (something to use for transformation). We can either chose the path of bitter or that of better.
Leviticus 16: 8: He is to cast lots for the two goats–one lot for the Lord and the other for the scapegoat.
The scapegoat was given the burden of sins and banished out into the wilderness, while another, representing innocence, was kept in the community and sacrificed in cold blood. One goat was the vehicle for blame, the boogeyman while the other was the victim of victims. The sacrifice was a means to pacify minds that needed reasons for community suffering.
When the blaming finger extends, there are only victims. The pointer releases power over to the external something which then incarcerates the pointer and sometimes the one pointed at too. The incarceration in turn only reinforces the pointing. We are trapped in a cycle of what is wrong. Vicious circle.
Luke 17:20: Now having been questioned by the Pharisees as to when the kingdom of God was coming, He answered them and said, “The kingdom of God is not coming with signs to be observed; 21: nor will they say, ‘Look, here it is!’ or, ‘There it is!’ For behold, the kingdom of God is in your midst.”
Instead of fixating on what is wrong, it’s instead recommended to focus on the solution. Sondra Fraleigh parallels this idea. “Darkness, the major trope of Butoh, is not a corruption of the flesh to be purified as in biblical alchemy. Rather—as in Jungian explanations of alchemy—the darkness of material is something that must be experienced consciously before transformation and integration can take place.”6
Exercise: Mirror Shadows
This is an exercise to be done in front of a mirror in the dark with one candle. One is to focus on one’s face for a long while (30 minutes or more), and see the various personalities that come about. Many may be scary, absurd, or aged. When they come about, know they are aspects of yourself (subpersonalities), and that you accept them in yourself. These can also possibly be useful for finding butoh characters.